Wednesday, February 12, 2020

Should the UK join the euro Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Should the UK join the euro - Essay Example Thus it means giving up the traditional pound for a new European wide single medium of exchange that is already in circulation. Moreover, this would also facilitate the adoption of a common EU monetary policy. That is why the British government too is unhappy with the idea because it entails transferring power and economic decision making to the EU bureaucracy. However, the government is not fundamentally opposed as long as there are demonstrated economic benefits of doing so. Also, if it does decide to join, it is a tough decision to make as to precisely when to join the bandwagon because this could have economic consequences too. Then there is the period of turbulence to endure before things settle. The main benefits of joining are due to the removal of economic barriers that hinder trading. A common currency does away with exchange rate fluctuations and transaction costs. This for example, makes investment more attractive in the UK. So we have the potential to gain in the areas of trade and investment but these benefits must be weighed against the effects of the loss of autonomy over macroeconomic policies and other complications. By not joining though, the UK risks being marginalised within the EU. And, the euro currency is a growing in strength. It is now â€Å"the world’s largest by cash value† (Stevenson, 2009). A successful European wide monetary policy requires that there is economic parity or at least a convergence in the economic circumstances between the euro-adopting states. For instance, if the rest of the EU fares better than the UK during the looming recession, interest rates are likely to be high and this would exasperate the financial difficulties of UK businesses and cause even lower output. On the other hand, low interest rates can cause higher inflation. This shows that the decision of joining and when to join is very much tied to concerns over the level of convergence and interest rates and the impact this could have

Friday, January 31, 2020

What are the Strategic Issues Facing Marks & Spencer and what strategy Essay

What are the Strategic Issues Facing Marks & Spencer and what strategy should they follow next - Essay Example The two merged to form a chain of small penny stalls under the retail name of Marks and Spencer plc. Michael Marks was succeeded by his son Simon Marks in the running of the stalls. Simon Marks, soon turned around of the bazaars into fully fledged stalls and introduced the St. Michael’ Logo which was used as a distinct sign of quality on all the Marks and Spencer products. With over 885 stores in 40 territories,600 in the UK and survey data showing that one in every three British women were wearing on of the Marks & Spencer range of bras, Marks and Spencer was officially recognized as being the largest clothing retailer in the UK. In 2010, a new CEO was appointed to head the company and the CEO was immediately besieged with a myriad of issues associated with continuing the challenges of strategic change and reassessing the company’s competitive strategy. Challenges Facing Marks & Spencer. Some of the internal issues facing Marks and Spencer include insufficient levels o f communication between the Board and the investors. Examples of this situation include the announcement by Stuart Rose in April 2008 declaring his taking over the joint role as both the company CEO and also as the chair of the board of directors. This move proved to be quite unpopular, since it was in breach of the advice that the company got from the combined code of corporate governance. The body provides a, code that is voluntarily followed by most of the FTSE 100 companies. The moved proved to be immediately unpopular with investors, who deemed that Rose was now holding too much power. This is especially since the move by a single person, to hold the combined roles, had previously proved to be dangerous. There were also fears that it could prove to be detrimental once again. Rose overlooked all these concerns and proceeded with the appointment (Hill & Jones 2010). In the first half of the year 2009, Rose and his marketing director awarded themselves an enormous ?1 million packa ge in the form of bonuses and shares. The move was opposed by investors and, Rose and his Marketing Director were forced to give up the package in order to try and appease the discontented shareholders. Louise Patten also came under fire, and there was a motion to block her reappointment for signing off the bonuses. In the July 2009 AGM, Rose narrowly survived a motion of no confidence by investors who were concerned about his joint role as both the company CEO and Chairing the board of directors. Over 40 percent of the investors had voted against the reappointment of Rose as Chair. Rose was in the limelight once again when in May 2010, the investors expressed their frustration with the board after, when without any shareholder consultations whatsoever, the board negotiated an impressive golden hello deal for the new CEO Bolland, amounting to ? 7.5 million in the form of cash as well as shares. The deal was criticized by many critics as being excessive and credited with giving Bolla nd a less than perfect start to his tenure at Marks and Spencer plc. (Collis) Among the corporate issues facing the company include the announcement by Rose in July 2009, stating his intention to stand down as the company CEO, but not as the Chair of the board until 2011. This move was seen by investors as having the probability of creating an almost impossible leadership task for Mark Bolland, the incoming CEO with Rose and the Marks and Spencer plc board looking set to remain in their capacities for the medium term. The inability by Marks and Spencer to break into the mid-age demographic, and its over reliance on the 55years+ demographic which comprised of nearly two thirds of its customers was also criticized by Tony Shiret in 2009. The launch of the (GIVe) range of

Thursday, January 23, 2020

Androgyny in the Characters of Macbeth and Lady Macbeth Essay -- GCSE

Androgyny in the Characters of Macbeth and Lady Macbeth  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚   In her book, Woman and Gender in Renaissance Tragedy, Dympna Callaghan addresses the presentation of women in Elizabethan England, stating that "women were clearly socially subordinate, and the preponderance of discourse on the gender hierarchy was misogynistic" (Callaghan 12). According to Marianne L. Novy in Love's Argument: Gender Relations in Shakespeare: "'Woman' seems to be associated with qualities - emotions, fears, - one has against one's will, and 'man' with a preferable mode of existence. Men are exhorted to be men, and women, playfully or seriously, often attempt to imitate men" (Novy 198). While men and women were born different, it was society's treatment of their distinguishing sexual traits that defined them either as masculine, and thus in a position of power, or as feminine and unable to challenge male authority. Much of the literature composed in Elizabethan England reflects, whether deliberately or inadvertently, the gender inequities cited by Callaghan, Novy, and others. In William Shakespeare's Macbeth, the dynamics of the marriage between Macbeth and Lady Macbeth involve a mutual striving towards manhood as a result of misplaced gender traits in each. Shakespeare develops the androgyny of Macbeth and Lady Macbeth, and this becomes the basis for the offenses they commit in the play. Both characters achieve a position of power and authority through the use of their masculine characteristics, but their feminine characteristics make their gains tenuous and ultimataly cause their downfall. Throughout the play Shakespeare presents the feminine traits within Macbeth as the characteristics that mark him as a flawed man. When Macbeth says... ...speare. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1984 5. Ussher, Jane. Women's Madness: Misogyny or Mental Illness?. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1991 6. Williams, Juanita. Psychology of Women. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1987    WORKS REFERENCED 1. Belsey, Catherine. The Subject of Tragedy. London: Methuen, 1985 2. Biggins, Dennis. "Sexuality, Witchcraft, and Violence in Macbeth." Shakespeare Studies VII (1975) 3. Gilligan, Carol. In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women's Development. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1982 4. Hogrefe, Pearl. Tudor Women: Commoners and Queens. Ames: Iowa State University Press, 1975 5. Howells, John, ed. World History of Psychiatry. New York: Brunner/Mazel, 1975 6. Millett, Kate. Sexual Politics. New York: Ballantine Books, 1987   

Wednesday, January 15, 2020

Value System in Nepal

What is value system? In simple way value system means the principle of right and wrong that are accepted by an individual or a social group. Values can be defined as broad preferences concerning appropriate courses of action or outcomes. As such, values reflect a person’s sense of right and wrong or what â€Å"ought† to be. 40â€Å"Equal rights for all† and â€Å"People should be treated with respect and dignity† are representative of values. Values tend to influence attitudes and behavior.For example, if you value equal rights for all and you go to work for an organization that treats its managers much better than it does its workers, you may form the attitude that the company is an unfair place to work; consequently, you may not produce well or may perhaps leave the company. It is likely that if the company had had a more egalitarian policy, your attitude and behaviors would have been more positive. A value system is in essence the ordering and prioriti zation of the ethical and ideological values that an individual or society holds.While two individuals or groups may share a set of common values, they may differ in their determination of which values in that set have precedence over others. The two individuals or groups are said to have different value systems, even though they may have many values in common, if their prioritization of values differs, or if there are different exceptions they attach to these values. Groups and individuals whose differing value systems have many values in common may still wind up in conflict, ideological or physical, with each other, because of the differences in their value systems.People with differing value systems will thus disagree on the rightness or wrongness of certain actions, both in the abstract and in specific circumstances. In essence, a value system (if sufficiently well-defined) is a formalization of a moral code. The premise behind the discipline of rigorously examining value system s and the differences between them (given the provisional name ethonomics) is that an understanding of these differences in prioritization of values can lead to greater understanding about the politics (and motivations) of individuals and groups.While political discourse in recent times has frequently focused on the â€Å"values† held by the people engaging in the discourse (be they candidates, office holders, or media pundits), in reality those being compared share many (perhaps most) values in common. It is in their prioritization of those values that they differ, causing them (as a result of these different prioritizations) to come to different conclusions about what is right and wrong, and to take different actions accordingly.One example of a simple formal value system is Isaac Asimov's Three Laws of Robotics, which is intended as value system (of sorts) for robots in the hypothetical future of Asimov's science fiction novels. Simply distilled, the laws stipulate that: * human life is of primary importance and value (â€Å"A robot may not harm a human being, or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm. â€Å") * orders given by human beings to robots are secondary, to be obeyed as long as they do not violate the first law (â€Å"A robot must obey the orders given to it by human beings, except where such orders would conflict with the First Law. ) * a robot's own existence is of tertiary value, meaning that a robot should preserve its own life only if the other two laws have been satisfactorily complied with (â€Å"A robot must protect its own existence, as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Law. â€Å") Naturally, this is a very simplistic set of values, but the idea behind formalization of value systems is that more complex value systems that apply to human society might be derived or mapped from similar principles and structures, and that conflicts between such value systems might be resolved rat ionally.Definitions Values In order to define value systems, we need to define the characteristics of values that could be represented in a value system. The values that a group or person holds may fall into several different categories. The ones that usually concern us in the area of value systems are the ethical and the ideological. * Ethical values may be thought of as those values which serve to distinguish between good and bad, right and wrong, and moral and immoral. At a societal level, these values frequently form a basis for what is permitted and what is prohibited. Ideological values deal with the broader or more abstract areas of politics, religion, economics, and social mores. In theory, the broader ideological values should derive logically as natural consequences of the particulars of fundamental ethical values and their prioritizations. But although ideally a value system ought to be consistent, quite often this is not the case. Value Systems As mentioned earlier, a va lue system is the ordering and prioritization of the ethical and ideological values that an individual or society holds.The specific prioritizations may lead to designated exceptions invoked because one value is deemed more important than another (e. g. , â€Å"lying is wrong, but lying to save someone else's life is acceptable, because human life is more valuable (more highly valued) than the principle that lying is wrong†). Regardless of whether or not value systems are formed logically, they determine for individuals and societies what actions they are likely to act and how those actions are likely to be justified (or perhaps ‘rationalized'). Characteristics of Value SystemsValue systems can be categorized along multiple axes: * They can be personal, held by an individual and applicable only to an individual, or they can be communal or societal, defined by and applying to a community or society. Communal value systems may be legal codes take on the force of law in ma ny societies. * They can be internally consistent, where the broader ideological values derive logically as natural consequences of the particulars of fundamental ethical values, and where values do not contradict each other, or they can be inconsistent.Although ideally a value system ought to be consistent, quite often this is not the case in practice. Note that valuing the consistency of a value system is itself a sort of ‘meta-value', that could be present or absent in a given value system. * They can be idealized value systems (ideal representations of an individual's or group's value prioritizations) or realized value systems (how such a value system is manifested in reality, in the actions and decisions of the individual or group).Idealized value systems tend to be absolute, in that they are codified as a strict set of proscriptions on behavior, while realized value systems contain conditional exceptions that are rules to resolve collisions between values in practical ci rcumstances. Personal vs. Communal A value system may be held by a group of people, a community or society, or it might be held by an individual. An individual person's value system might be consistent with or equivalent to the community's value system. Consistency does not imply equivalence, though.An individual's value system might even hold the person to a higher standard, and still be consistent with the community's value system. (Consistency within a value system, described below, refers to the degree to which contradictions and overt situational exceptions are absent from that value system; consistency between value systems means that any action that might be taken in one value system would not contradict the rules associated with another. ) Exceptions One way of looking at differences between value systems is to think of the exceptions to the â€Å"rules† associated with values.These could be abstract exceptions (which are generalized enough in the way they are defined to take hold in all situations) and situational exceptions (which only can be said to be applied in very specific situations). The more generalized the exception, the more useful it is in a wider context for defining a consistent value system. In general, abstract exceptions serve to reinforce the prioritization of values, e. g. : Lying is wrong, but lying to save someone else's life is acceptable, because preserving a human life is more valuable (more highly valued) than the adhering to the principle that lying is wrong.In a formal value system (idealized or realized), the default exception associated with each value is assumed to be â€Å"as long as no higher-priority value is violated†. However, this hierarchical structure may be too simplistic in practice, and explicit exceptions may need to be specified. Examples of exceptions in practice: * We may commonly agree that telling the truth is an important positive value, and that conversely deception is inherently wrong. Bu t we make both abstract and situational exceptions for circumstances where we may assert that lying is acceptable behavior.Thus lying to avoid causing another person pain as a general rule would be considered an abstract exception, while lying in a particular situation because a specific person, if lied to, might do a specific thing at a specific time would be considered a situational exception. * People may agree that stealing is wrong, but some people may believe that stealing if you are starving and want to feed yourself and your loved ones is more acceptable than stealing if you are a abitual thief who makes a living stealing from people, or if you are an already wealthy person whose greed leads you to steal from your partners, your investors, or those you do business with. Others may find nothing wrong with stealing from faceless corporations and business establishments but may frown upon stealing from individuals. Some may define certain acts to qualify as not stealing if they fit into some of these categories. * People who think that killing is wrong might make an exception for someone acting in self-defense, placing a higher value on preservation of one's own life than on the principle of â€Å"thou shalt not kill†.Someone in the military might accept the value that killing another person is wrong yet may see nothing wrong with killing someone (in self-defense or not) in the course of or following the orders of a military commander (assumed to have a valid reason for ordering the killing), placing a higher value on discipline/loyalty and â€Å"defending one's country†. Conversely, a conscientious objector might prioritize the value that killing is wrong not only over military actions but even over self-defense. Many people in the business world might include the Golden Rule (which says â€Å"Do unto others as you would have others do unto you†) in their value system, but in practice they might place higher priority on the values li ke â€Å"Every man for himself† or â€Å"Let the buyer beware†. Conversely, another person might find that prioritization morally repugnant, and accuse the businessman of being unethical (or even of a form of theft) if he sells merchandise he knows to be shoddy, or deceives those he tries to do business with. ConsistencyA value system whose exceptions are abstract, generalized enough to be used in all situations, is said to be an internally consistent value system. On the other hand, a value system whose exceptions are highly situational, or whose exceptions are inconsistently applied, is said to be an internally inconsistent. A value system's consistency (or lack thereof) does not necessarily say anything about how ‘good' or ‘evil' it is. A value system that declares that lying and murder are acceptable, that essentially endorses a ‘might makes right' morality, could be internally consistent in its approach.Likewise, an internally inconsistent value system, loaded with inconsistently applied situational exceptions, might be considered perfectly acceptable if the ‘meta-value' of consistent application of values is not part of the value system. (The paradox here is that the absence of this value in a value system makes it consistent, because there is no constraint that says it must be consistent. It could be argued that those who explicitly omit this meta-value from their value system implicit endorse consistency as a value in that act of deliberate omission. On the other hand, those who hold this value ) Idealized vs.Realized These exceptions, especially when they are implicitly rather than explicitly defined, often yield a difference between an idealized value system and the realized value system. The idealized value system is the simple listing of values (in priority order) that a person or society would purport that they employ in determining right and wrong. The realized value system is the one they actually use in day -to-day life. While people claiming to employ a particular value system might say they place more value on x than y, more often than not there are deviations from this in practice.A consistent value system A religion may list a strong set of positive values, but its adherents and even those who are leaders of the religion may stray from those in practice. Idealized value systems often list strict rules (perhaps without any prioritizing order) but do not carefully define exceptions, abstract or situational. Realized value systems, in practice, often have a number of exceptions associated with them, but they may not be explicitly defined or consistently applied. Absolutists hold to their idealized value system and claim no exceptions other than the default.Defining Values Some fundamental values that most people seem to share, at least in theory, are: * â€Å"It's wrong to hurt, to harm, or especially to kill another person. † * â€Å"It's wrong to steal from another person. à ¢â‚¬  * â€Å"It's wrong to lie. † In practice, realized examples of these values would be a good deal more complicated, with exceptions already embedded within them. * â€Å"It's wrong to hurt another person, except in self-defense to keep them from hurting you, or if it is agreed upon with the other person as a step towards a mutually acceptable greater good (e. g. a doctor giving a patient a painful injection to cure an ailment). † * â€Å"It's wrong to take something from someone in a non-consensual fashion without negotiating overtly with the other person and agreeing to a mutually satisfactory transfer or exchange. † * â€Å"It's wrong to deceive another person knowingly for your own gain. † * â€Å"It's wrong to take deliberate overt action to prevent another person from exercising his will as long as that exercise does not interfere with your own exercise of will, except when the other person's will serves to violate the aforementioned principle s. In general, these values declare that â€Å"it's wrong to interfere in another person's life unless they do things to interfere in yours† This corresponds in essence to what has been called the Wiccan Rede which declares that â€Å"[As long as it] harms none, do what thou wilt†. While this may seem an elegant moral principle, in practice it runs into trouble because of the differing priorities people place on specific individual values, because of the way differing value systems define what is and isn't ‘harm', and perhaps most of all because of the different exceptions implicitly or explicitly defined in a value system.Examples of conflicting value systems This section is devoted to the process of using rational analysis to resolve conflicts between value systems. Individualism vs. collectivism In individualism, the needs and wants of the individual take precedence over the needs and wants of a society or community. The implicit exception inherent in individu alism is usually â€Å"as long as the actions of the individual do not harm other individuals. † Absolutists may claim that even this exception does not hold.In collectivism, the needs and wants of the society or community take precedence over the needs and wants of the individual. Rarely is the exception invoked that this is true â€Å"as long as the actions of the society do not restrict individuals . † It could be argued that a rational value system puts value on the needs and wants of the society or community structure, but does not give this more value than the needs and wants of the individuals within it.It is relatively easy to argue the case for this prioritization: under collectivism, a community could decide (however such decisions might be made) that it would work better if there were no people in it to interfere with the smooth running of society. While this might be true, since people tend to â€Å"complicate† the smooth running of any social order, it would create a society without any people, something which is clearly against the interest of the people in that society—would we rationally advocate our own extinction if it made the â€Å"system† of society run better?A rational resolution to the conflict between individualism and collectivism might structure these values in this manner: 1. The rights of individuals to act as they wish is unencumbered, unless their actions harm others or interfere with others' free exercise of their individual rights, and as long as their actions do not interfere with functions of society that other individuals depend upon, provided those functions do not themselves interfere with these proscribed individual rights and were agreed to by a majority of the individuals. . A society (or more specifically the system of order that enables the workings of a society) exists for the purpose of benefitting the lives of the individuals who are members of that society. The functions of a soc iety in providing such benefits would be those agreed to by the majority of individuals in the society. 1. A society may require contributions from its members in order for them to benefit from the services provided by the society.The failure of individuals to make such required contributions could be considered a reason to deny those benefits to them, although a society could elect to consider hardship situations in determining how much should be contributed. 1. A society may restrict behavior of individuals who are members of the society only for the purpose of performing its designated functions agreed to by the majority of individuals in the society, only insofar as they violate the aforementioned values.This means that a society may abrogate the rights of any of its members who fails to uphold the aforementioned values. Of necessity, as you can see here, the exceptions associated with values like these can become recursive and often convoluted. The name proposed for the discipl ine that tries to perform this task—mapping and formalizing value system prioritizations and resolving conflicts between disparate value systems through rational analysis—is ethonomics.

Tuesday, January 7, 2020

Gender Identity Disorder Essays - 1031 Words

Living a life feeling out of place, with the wrong feelings, and in the wrong body, for a person with Gender Identity Disorder, this is how they feel day to day. According to the DSM-IV-TR, Gender Identity Disorder is characterized by a strong, persistent cross-gender identification, persistent discomfort with his or her sex or sense of inappropriateness in their gender role of that sex. According to the American Psychiatric Association (APA), children, adolescents and adults who exhibit a preoccupation with getting rid of or losing their primary and secondary sex characteristics, associated with different mannerisms and actions of the opposite sex; while holding a belief that he or she was born the wrong sex are believed to be classified†¦show more content†¦However, studies have proven that many adolescents with Gender Identity Disorder grew up in families which at least at one time â€Å"cross-gender behavior was tolerated or encouraged, often viewed as ‘only a pha se.† (Byrd 7) The biggest question asked is how it comes around, however there is not a solid reasoning or proof of one main causal factor. According to Lippa, exposure to testosterone during the second trimester of pregnancy, when the development of both male internal and external genitals and a male-typical nervous system forms, may influence gender identity. (98) Brown counters this argument by saying the formation of a secure unconflicted gender identity and gender role is influenced by social factors, such as the character of parent’s emotional bond or the relationship each parent has with the child; he asserts that the biological factors (genetic complement or prenatal hormones) do largely determine gender identity however they do not act alone, more or less just setting the stage to go one way or the other. Gender Identity Disorder can make a child; adolescent or adult feel awkward and alone. Gender Identity Disorder paired with either Gender Dysphoria or Transse xualism will disrupt the development of social skills and create more problems behaviorally. Normative studies present evidence of the co-morbidity through parent report data revealing that children with Gender Identity Disorder have onShow MoreRelatedGender And : Gender Identity Disorder1287 Words   |  6 PagesGender Dysphoria, formerly known as Gender Identity Disorder, is described by the DSM-IV as a persistent and strong cross-gender identification and a persistent unease with ones sex. However, gender identity is not diagnosed as such if it is comorbid with a physical intersex condition. Gender dysphoria is not to be confused with sexual orientation, as people with gender dysphoria could be attracted to men, women, or both. According to an article written by, Australasian Sciences there are fourRead MoreGender And Gender Identity Disorder2178 Words   |  9 Pageswe re born, our gender identity is no secret. We re either a boy or a girl. Gender organizes our world into pink or blue. As we grow up, most of us naturally fit into our gender roles. Girls wear dresses and play with dolls. For boys, it s pants and trucks.† (Goldburg, A.2007) However, for some, this is not the case. Imagine for a moment that you are a two year old boy drawn to the color pink, make up, and skirts. If this is the case than most likely, you are experiencing Gender Dysphoria, otherwiseRead More Gender Identity Disorder Essay1594 Words   |  7 PagesGender, Sex, Sexuality: Separate and NOT equal. First and foremost, a few key terms to keep in mind while reading this paper. Sex†: refers to the biological and physiological characteristics that define men and women.[1] â€Å"Gender†: refers to the socially constructed roles, behaviors, activities, and attributes that a given society considers appropriate for men and women.[2] â€Å"Gender identityâ€Å": an individuals self-conception as being male or female, as distinguished from actual biologicalRead MoreGender Identity Disorder954 Words   |  4 PagesGender Identity Disorder/Gender Dysphoria Gender identity disorder (GID) or transsexualism is defined by strong, persistent feelings of identification with the opposite gender and discomfort with one’s own assigned sex. (â€Å"Psychology Today†) Due to a recent change to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, or DSM, â€Å"Gender Identity Disorder† will be replaced with â€Å"Gender Dysphoria†. For the purpose of this paper those two terms will be interchangeable. This paper will exploreRead MoreGender Identity Disorder2712 Words   |  11 PagesGender Identity Disorder What is gender identity disorder? Gender identity disorder (GID) is the formal diagnosis used by psychologists and physicians to describe persons who experience significant gender dysphoria (discontent with the biological sex they were born with). It is a psychiatric classification and describes the attributes related to transsexuality. Gender identity disorder in children is usually reported as having always been there since childhood, and is considered clinicallyRead MoreGender Identity Disorder Is A Mental Disorder983 Words   |  4 Pagesdepartment of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, state that â€Å"gender identity disorder is a mental disorder in which gender identity is incongruent with anatomical sex†. Individuals experience different degrees of unhappiness with their sex at birth, which in turn causes them to pursue the life and body of the opposite sex (2010). Does this mean that Matt (ie) has a mental disorder? Would this explain why when Matt (ie) went to a Shaman and the Shaman gave Matt (ie) allRead MoreGender Identity Disorder ( Gid )1209 Words   |  5 Pagestheir biological sex and gender identity, which is known as gender dysphoria. Gender dysphoria is formally known as gender identity disorder (GID), gender incongruence or transgenderism. According to Mohammaed Meomon, gender dysphoria is a product of highly complex genetic, neurodevelopmental, and psychological factors (Meomon, 2016). A person’s biological sex is given at birth depending on the appearance of the genitals. What a person identifies with is called gender identity. For example, a womanRead MoreGender Identity Disorder (Gid)1051 Words   |  5 Pages(e-mail me and let me know if you use this and how it does) Gender Identity Disorder (GID) As early as the age of four (Vitale, 1996), some children begin to realize that the gender their body tells them they are, and the gender their mind tells them they are dont correspond. The sense of gender and the anatomical sex of a person mature at different times and different regions of the body (Vitale, 1997b). Sometimes the gendermap, the template within the mind of a person that codes for masculinityRead MoreGender Identity Disorders ( Gids )1403 Words   |  6 Pagesindividual who was living as a woman while waiting to qualify for gender re-assignment surgery (GReS), shows the pain that those who struggle with gender identity disorders (GIDS) undergoi while â€Å"trapped† in the physical and social constraints of living as their original gender, as well as the relief that comes with living as a member of their â€Å"true† gender. Some may argue that use of surgery for purposes of treating gender identity disorders is morally unacceptable since trans sexuality does not belongRead MoreGender Identity Disorder ( Gid ) Essay2178 Words   |  9 PagesIntroduction Sex and gender have been highly controversial constructs amongst many researchers for a long time, due to differing interpretations and definitions for both. Sex is described as the biological indicators of an individual being male or female, based on their sex chromosomes and non-ambiguous internal and external genitalia. Gender, on the other hand, is a social construct that is shaped by the way someone develops their idea of male or female within society. The term gender was introduced when

Sunday, December 22, 2019

An Analysis Of Nicholas Carr s The Shallows What The...

Nicholas Carr published The Shallows: What the Internet is Doing to Our Brains in 2011 as a result of his own personal experiences and observations of his own behavior. The book was published by W.W. Norton Company with ISBN 978-0-393-33975-8. Carr began working on the book after he noticed that since the birth of the internet, he did not think in the same ways that he used to think; he was easily distracted and had trouble concentrating on tasks requiring a lot of thought (2011). This effect, he noticed, was not unique to him. Many of his colleagues reported that they too had lost a lot of interest in reading books, had trouble concentrating and were easily distracted (Carr, 2011). What if, Carr wondered, everyone doesn’t just prefer to do their reading on the internet for its inherent convenience and speed but rather, what if the internet was actually changing the way we all think? I have noticed these same effects as Carr noticed in the last ten years and they may be m ore pronounced for me and others who are considered digital immigrants. I’ve observed that my thinking has become flattened, distracted and I have noticed that I have trouble working on tasks that require deep concentration. While reading The Shallows, I could relate to Carr’s difficulty in sitting down to do a lot of uninterrupted deep reading or focusing on a task requiring a lot of concentration when reading on the internet is so much more enjoyable. The central theme of the Carr’s book is thatShow MoreRelatedSummary Of The Shallows By Nicholas G. Carr981 Words   |  4 PagesIn his article â€Å"The Shallows†, Nicholas G. Carr explains to his readers how reading writing came to be, it s effects on the brain, and what both Plato and Socrates thought about the subjects. According to Carr, writing began in the year 8000 BC, when people would use small clay tokens that were engraved with symbols as a way to keep track of livestock and goods (Carr, The Shallows: What the Internet Is Doing to Our Brains). Then during the end of the fourth century BC, the Sumerians and EgyptiansRead MoreThe Impact Of Internet On Human Brain1377 Words   |  6 PagesThe goal that I wanted and desired to accomplish while completing the MYP project, was to understand the impact of internet use on the human brain. The pros and cons of having information available to us at the tip of fingers, or in our pockets. I chose this project because I wanted to explore the core of human nature. I wanted to comprehend how we operate, function and work with new discoveries. Experiment with our ability to adapt to new foundings and use them at our benefits, rather than becomeRead More Mind Muscle Vs. 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